Consciousness cannot be explained by matter

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Parent debateThis argument is used in the debate Does God exist?.
Argument againstThis argument is an objection to There is no spirit outside matter.
Keywords: God[ edit ].



“we have independent reasons for believing that materialism is a false doctrine. Thus, the philosophical theory of mental activity convincingly demonstrates that materialism is incapable of explaining by reduction or emergence not only the existence of the higher operations of the mind (total self-reflection, apprehension of abstractions), but also the existence of mere "phenomenal" sensory consciousness (i.e. consciousness as subjective experience): we must necessarily assume the existence of non-derivative, intrinsically spiritual properties, susceptible of degrees of intensity. We thus have proof that spirit - if by spirit we mean "first-person existence", in other words, consciousness - is an indubitable, irreducible, ineradicable reality.”

Frédéric Guillaud, God exists, p.155-156, Éditions du Cerf, 2013.


Arguments forJustifications

Arguments againstObjections

  • Argument againstThe mechanisms of consciousness are unknown
  • Argument againstConsciousness is not clearly defined

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